Perception of Consequences Among Cultures
To give you an example, here's a link to some recent research that talks about the differences between how Asian and European/American cultures make decisions and reason about consequences. In summary, Asians tend to take more of a holistic approach while Americans lean toward analytical reasoning, not taking as much context into consideration.
I'll be posting more about cognitive psychology in the future. In the meantime, if you're interested, check out Cognitive Daily and Mixing Memory. Two great blogs that discuss cognition research (usually in fairly easy to understand language).